Original date of article: January 2019

6 - Oldest Time Marker in Ancient Egypt.

The oldest time marker that can be found in Egypt is possibly the causeway towards the Pyramid of Chephren (Khafre) on the Giza Plateau.


Plan of Gizeh plateau.

There isn’t any explication for the fact this causeway makes an 14° south-east angle. The causeway towards the pyramid of Cheops also doesn’t lead exactly towards the east. The reason here is there were already older mastabas in situ. However, that’s not the case at all for the causeway of Chefren. It would have been much easier if this causeway was going straight eastwards. The reason why may be that this way existed already from the earliest days in the history of Egypt and became much later a causeway for the pyramid of Chephren. To some this causeway is very important because it has a 14° south-east orientation. However, this can also be seen as a 76° north-west orientation.



The causeway towards the pyramid of Chephren makes an angle of 76° NW. If the orientation from Gizeh is 76°NW then the direction from Syene must be 73.3° NW to reach the same point.


Syene 03

Viewed from Syene, the maximum angle for the crustal shift is 74.6° NW. This orientation points straight towards the former geographical North Pole (N1G). All the measurements here are not so accurate. So, is it possible this causeway (73.3°NW) in reality is pointing towards the former north pole too? Unlikely, although the difference in the angles is very small it's surely there.



Daltempel 1

Besides, the causeway towards the pyramid of Chephren isn’t the only construction with this NW angle. Most parts of the valley temple are exactly north-south or east-west oriented, therefore this temple must have been built after the crustal shift had stopped. But, some corridors and/or chambers inside this temple have the same NW angle as the causeway and must therefore be even older than the valley temple itself. These may well be the remains of the oldest construction in Egypt.


Daltempel 2
Plan of the valley temple of Chefren.
“Plate” 6 drawn by Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie.

BookThe Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh”, 1883 [Note 3]

Where the causeway has a 14° south-east or also a 76° north-west orientation, the corridor inside the valley temple seems to have a 15.5° south-east orientation instead (or 74.5° north-west). The correct angle will no doubt be somewhere between 74.5° and 76° NW. Let’s consider the 76° NW angle as the maximum and also as the correct value.


Syene 03
From Syene, the orientation of the causeway towards the pyramid of Chephren is 73.3° NW.


If the 74.6° NW orientation was indeed the start of the crustal shift, then the 73.3 NW angle must probably be seen as the new start for Egypt. The difference (74.6° - 73.3°) of 1.3 degrees represents at most a few years. Who was king then?


Pure Hypothetical of course:

Say the crustal shift started indeed in 10,500 BC. The angle of 74.6 degrees north-west would then represent 10,500 BC and the causeway with its 73.3° NW orientation came shortly after.

[Note 4] According to the author Robert Bauval  the date would be about 10,450 BC. That sounds logical, can be a correct dating.   



[3] Book "The pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" by W.M Flinders Petrie anno 1883.
online by © 2003–14 Ronald Birdsall. All rights reserved.

[4] Book “The Orion Mystery” by Robert Bauval.
Nederlandse versie “Het Orion Mysterie”  ISBN 90 269 6130 8/CIP