Original date of article: January 2019

2 - Umm el Qa'ab, Abydos, Egypt.

Abydos 1

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For the moment, we don’t know (yet) the exact location of the geographic North Pole. Because both poles were lying close to each other we assume the same location for the geographical North Pole. Thus, from the point of view of Abydos and drawn on a flat map, the earth's crust has shifted over an angle of 64 degrees.


Why choose Abydos as an example?

Abydos was the cradle of the earliest Egyptian civilizations. Umm el-Qa’ab is a necropolis located in the vicinity of Abydos and consists of two burial grounds, group U and B. Burial field B contains graves from the proto-dynastic period, also called dynasty 0 and also the tombs of the kings from the 1st and 2nd dynasty. The orientation of these tombs can be an indication of a crustal shift.


Umm el Qaab
Necropolis Umm el-Qaab near Abydos, the burial field B

Drawing offered on Wikipedia by PLstrom
Copy of blank map from Wikimedia commons:


The oldest graves and the later tombs of graveyard B are drawn on the satellite picture above. The oldest group of graves have the letter B followed by a number (proto-dynasty or also dynasty 0) the more recent tombs have a letter (from O to V) and are tombs from the 1st and 2nd dynasty.

As far as the drawing itself is concerned; it looks neat and fairly accurate, this drawing must have cost a lot of time. Notwithstanding this, it is almost inevitable that there may be deviations on the orientations up to 5 ° or even slightly more, especially for the group B where the graves are very small.


Burial Field - group B1 to B19.

In order to demonstrate a possible former crustal shift, we first look at the group B, which is the oldest and contains graves from the proto-dynastic period.


Field B
The picture above shows the oldest part of burial field B,
the image was rotated so the north is at the top.

Table 01
Table taken from Wikipedia (Dutch version):

In het Nederlands: https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_el-Qaab
In English: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_El_Qa%27ab


The table above shows the kings of group B in chronological order as recorded by archaeologists. This group contains the oldest graves and these are usually no more than relatively small wells in the ground. The whole looks chaotic and all graves have a different orientation, apparently chosen totally randomly.

However, reality can be completely different, even those little tombs were originally aligned with the north pole star of that time. However, due to the earth crust shift, these graves have received a certain NW orientation. When the second grave was aligned to the north, the 1st grave had already received a small NW orientation, this went on until the earth's crust came to a standstill. The oldest graves therefore have the largest NW orientation.

For each grave, the NW angle must be measured on the drawing above, these graves are small and errors up to 5 degrees or even slightly more in the orientation are possible. If another drawing is used the measurements may differ a lot. However, the angles on this or another drawing must be sufficient to show that the oldest graves indeed have the largest NW orientation


Graves B1 and B2.

graves B1 B2


Grave B2 = 35.4° and grave B1 = 24.6°. According to archaeologists, B1 and B2 belong together and would be the graves of HOR IRY. Both angles differ by 10 degrees, which is far too much to come from the same period. Possibly it’s a larger sign error, so the correct orientation should be determined on site. B2 = 35.4° is perhaps the correct angle for both graves (B1 & B2).


Graves B7 and B9.

graves B7 B9
Both graves (wells) have a 39° NW orientation.


Graves B17 and B18.

graves B17 B18
Both graves have a 34.6° NW orientation.


Graves B10, B15 and B19.

graves B10 B15 B19
The three graves have about a 28.4° NW orientation.


Graves B13, B14 and group B15.

graves B13 B14
B13, B14 and the entire group B15' have an orientation of about 26° NW.

The orientations of all these graves summarized in a table are as follows:

Field B (2)


The table clearly shows that the oldest graves also have indeed the largest NW orientation. Because of the earth crust shift, the oldest graves have undergone the largest NW shift. In the chronology established by archaeologists and those found on the basis of the orientations there is a difference in lines 1 and 2, however, according to the measured angles the lines 1 and 2 have to change position.

A small difference in chronology is only the least of the problems, a difference of 7,000 years between the a crustal shift (10,500 BC?) and the earliest archaeological dating (3,500 BC) will be a much bigger problem. In the vicinity of Abydos are the 14 solar ships of HOR-AHA, these were dated to 2775 BC. These are wooden ships, what about the carbon dating? How old are they in reality?

Abydos 2


On the map above are the orientation angles of the oldest graves from burial field B. The largest NW orientation found is 39 degrees, the youngest group of graves (B13, B14, B15) has an average orientation of 26° NW. According archaeologists the tombs with the letters from O to V are more recent than the group B, these should therefore have an orientation smaller than 26° NW. The angle should lie between 26° NW and 0° N (max. remaining shift = 26 degrees).


The more recent tombs of burial Field B.

Field B
The map above was turned exactly to the north.
The orientation of each tomb complex was determined, all tombs are NW directed.



Tombs O-V
Table taken from Wikipedia and supplemented with the NW angle of orientation.

In English: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_El_Qa%27ab

In het Nederlands : https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_el-Qaab

In the above table the kings of the 1st and 2nd dynasty are in chronological order, at the back is the NW orientation for each tomb and the order these pharaohs would have had if we were to rely exclusively on the orientation of their grave.

The beginning and the end of the list corresponds exactly to the order set by archaeologists. Where there are differences with their chronology, the difference in degrees is reasonably small so that we can best decide that the angle measurements were not perfect. Nevertheless, the previous table should be sufficient to demonstrate a possible former crustal shift. It is important to note that the oldest grave has an angle of 63° NW and that this angle decreases to 23° NW for the most recent grave. This could indicate a shift of the poles.

Abydos 2a


According to archaeologists the successor of HOR-AHA (graves B10, B15, B19 = 28° NW) was king Djer, he has the tomb O with an orientation of 63° NW. The more recent tombs should have a NW orientation smaller than 26°. However, for the tomb of Djer it’s 63° NW. It’s as if this tomb would be much older than the graves in group B. That is impossible, so…. what now?